LED stands for Light Emitting Diode. These semi-conductor diodes were first developed in the year 1962 by Mr. Nick Holonyak Jr.
The use of LED was limited to indicators in traffic lights and electronic equipment. But with gradual advancements in technology, it is now possible to use them for generallighting.
This is seen as a big break through as LED is an extremely efficient source of light and when used in general lighting, it has tremendous scope to save energy.
The principle of light emission in an LED is very straight forward even though it is very complex in construction. It consists of a simple PN junction diode that emits light when current flows through it.
These PN junctions are the heart of electronics. A processor typically consist of millions of these junctions and just consider how easy it is to use a computer or a phone. And they barely consume any power. The same thing is true for LED. It understands the language of and 1 therefore can be made to do wonderful things through a good design. For example it is possible to achieve wireless dimming, colour control, excellent power factor, low THD and more, all in the same light.
But at the same time an LED demands that stringent design parameters are followed. These parameters can be classified under the following categories:
Electronic / Electrical
Long life (8 times CFL and halogen)
Very low UV and IR
No mercury content
Can be used with secondary optics(like lenses)
High luminous efficacy
High energy efficiency
High PF and low THD
Easy to control
High Colour Rendering Index (CRI)
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